71 studies and articles showing effects of EMFs and the initiation and promotion of breast cancer.

Here are references and links to studies, books and articles highlighting effects from EMF exposures on breast cancer.  The collection includes some background documents, but excludes a significant number of papers linking EMF exposures to other types of cancer, which can be found elsewhere.

1. Becker RO. (1989). Cross Currents: The Promise of Electromedicine, the Perils of Electropollution, J.P. Tarcher; 1st ed.

2. Beniashvili D, Avinoach I, Baazov D, Zusman I. (2005). Household electromagnetic fields and breast cancer in elderly women. In Vivo. 19(3):563-6. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15875777

3. Blackman CF, Benane SG, House DE (2001). The influence of 1.2 microT, 60 Hz magnetic fields on melatonin- and tamoxifen-induced inhibitions of MCF-7 cell growth. Bioelectromagnetics 22 (2): 122-128. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11180258

4. Blackman C.F. et al (1996) Independent Replication of the 12 mG Magnetic Field Effect on Melatonin and MCF-7 Cells in vitro. BEMS Meeting, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada. Abstract A-1-2.

5. Blask DE, Brainard GC, Dauchy RT, Hanifin JP, et al (2005). Melatonin-depleted blood from premenopausal women exposed to light at night stimulates growth of human breast cancer xenografts in rude rats. Cancer Res. 65(23):11174-84. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16322268

6. Blask DE, Wilson ST, Zalatan F (1997). Physiological melatonin inhibition of human breast cancer cell growth in vitro: Evidence for a glutathione-mediated pathway. Cancer Research 15;57(10):1909-1914. http://cancerres.aarjournals.org/content/57/10/1909.long

7. Bullough J, Rea MS, Stevens RG. (1996). Light and magnetic fields in a neonatal intensive care unit. Bioelectromagnetics. 17(5):396-405. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8915549

8. Cameron IL, Sun LZ, Short N, Hardman WE, Williams CD (2005). Therapeutic Electromagnetic Field (TEMF) and gamma irradiation on human breast cancer xenograft growth, angiogenesis and metastasis. Cancer Cell Int. 5:23. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1190196/

9. Cantor KP, Dosemici M, Brinton LA, Steward PA. (1995). Re: Breast cancer mortality among female electrical workers in the United States. (Letter). JNCI87:227-8. http://jnci.oxfordjournals.org/content/87/3/227.full.pdf

10. Caplan LS, Schoenfeld ER, O’Leary ES, Leske MC. (2000). Breast cancer and electromagnetic fields—a review. Ann Epidemiol. 10(1):31-44. Review. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10658687

11. Chen C, Ma X, Zhong M, Yu Z (2010). Extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields exposure and female breast cancer risk: a meta-analysis based on 24,338 cases and 60,628 controls. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 123(2):569-76. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20145992

12. Cherry, N. (1999). Electromagnetic Radiation causes cancer: the implications for breast cancer World Conference on Breast Cancer Ottawa, Canada, 26-31 July 1999. http://www.neilcherry.com/documents/90_s3_EMR-EMF_and_BREAST_Cancer.pdf

13. Coogan PF, Clapp RW, Newcomb PA, Wenzl TB, Bogdan G, Mittendorf R, et al. (1996). Occupational exposure to 60-hertz magnetic fields and risk of breast cancer in women. Epidemiology 7:459-464. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8862974

14. Davanipour, Z., Sobel, E. (2009). Long-term exposure to magnetic fields and the risk of Alzheimer’s disease and breast cancer: Further biological research. Pathophysiology. 16(2-3):149-56.

15. Davis S, Mirick DK, Stevens RG (2001). Night shift work, light at night, and risk of breast cancer. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 93:1557-1562. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11604479

16. Demers PA, Thomas DB, Rosenblatt KA, et al. (1991). Occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields and breast cancer in men. Am J Epidemiol 134:340-7. http://aje.oxfordjournals.org/content/134/4/340.abstract?ijkey=3dced5e41e5e911c7cfe28a09a6a052eea0e9e76&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

17. Dosemeci M, Blair A (1994). Occupational cancer mortality among women employed in the telephone industry. Journal of Occupational Medicine 36(11):1204-9. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7861264

18. Erren TC. (2001) A meta-analysis of epidemiologic studies of electric and magnetic fields and breast cancer in women and men. Bioelectromagnetics. Suppl 5:S105-19. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9647902

19. Feychting M, Forssen U, Rutqvist LE, Ahlbom A (1998). Magnetic fields and breast cancer in Swedish adults residing near high-voltage power lines. Epidiomology 9:392-397. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9647902

20. Floderus B, Tornquist S, Stenlund C. (1994). Incidence of selected cancer in Swedish railway workers, 1961-1979. Cancer Causes Control 5:189-94. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=8167266

21. Girgert R, Emons G, Hanf V, Gründker C. (2009). Exposure of mcf-7 breast cancer cells to electromagnetic fields up-regulates the plasminogen activator system. Int J Gynecol Cancer. 19(3):334-8. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19882681

22. Girgert R, Hanf V, Emons G, Gründker C. (2010). Signal transduction of the melatonin receptor MTI is disrupted in breast cancer cells by electromagnetic fields. Bioelectromagnetics. 31(3):237-45.


23. Girgert, R., Schimming, II., Körner, W., Gründker, C., Hanf,V.. (2005). Induction of resistance in breast cancer cells by ELF electromagnetic fields. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 336(4):1144-9. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16168388

24. Grant SG, Melan MA, Latimer JJ, Witt-Enderby PA. (2009). Melatonin and breast cancer: cellular mechanisms, clinical studies and future perspectives. Expert Rev Mol Med. 5;11:e5. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19193248

25. Grigor’ev luG. (2000). [Delayed biological effect of electromagnetic fields action]. Radiats Biol Radioecol. 40(2):217-25. {Article in Russian]. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10819049

26. Guenel P, Raskmark P, Anderson J, Lynge E. (1993). Incidence of cancer in persons with occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields in Denmark. Br J Ind Med 50:758-64. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1012181/pdf/brjindmed00008-0086.pdf

27. Harland JD, Liburd RP (1997). Environmental magnetic fields inhibit the antiproliferative action of tamoxifen and melatonin in a human breast cancer cell line. Bioelectromagnetics 18: 555-62. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9383244

28. Harland JD, M.Y. Lee, G.A Levine, R.P. Liburdy. (1997). Differential inhibition of Tamoxifen’s Oncostatic Functions in a Breast Cancer Cell Line by 12 mG Magnetic Field. The Second World Congress for Electricity and Magnetism in Biology and Medicine Bologna, Italy, June 8-13, 1997.

29. Hensen J (2001). Increased breast cancer risk among women who work predominantly at night. Epidemiology 12:74-77. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11138824

30. Hensen J. (2001). Light at Night, Shiftwork, and Breast Cancer Risk. J Natl Cancer Inst 93 (20): 1513—515. http://jnci.oxfordjournals.org/content/93/20/1513.full

31. Ishido M. (2004). Transient inhibition synergistically insulin-like growth factor-1- and bisphenol A induced proliferation of estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha)-positive human breast cancer MCF-7 cells by melatonin. Environ Sci. 11(3):163-70. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15750583

32. Ji BT, Blair A, Shu XO, et al. (2008). Occupation and breast cancer risk among Shanghai women in a population-based cohort study. Am J Ind Med. 51(2):100-10. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2886981/pdf/nihms-211460.pdf

33. Jonies W.T., Zhang Y., Chenxing L., Jirtle R.L. (1993). The measured electrical properties of normal and malignant human tissues from 50 to 900 MHz Medical physics, 21: 547-550. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8058021

34. Kabat GC, O’Leary ES, Schoenfeld ER, Greene JM, Grimson R, Henderson K, Kaune WT, Gammon MD, Britton JA, Teitelbaum SL, Neugut AI, Leske MC; EBCLIS Group. (2003). Electric blanket use and breast cancer on Long Island. Epidemiology. 14(5):514-520. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14501265

35. Kliukiene J, Tynes T, Andersen A. (2003). Follow-up of radio and telegraph

36. Kliukiene J, Tynes T, Andersen A (2004). Residential and occupational exposures to 50-Hz magnetic fields and breast cancer in women: A population-based case study. American Journal of Epidemiology. 159:852-861. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2931065/?tool=pubmed

37. Lambrozo J, Touitou Y, Dab W. (1996). Exploring the EMF –Melatonin Correction: A Review of the Possible Effects of 50/60-Hz Electric and Magnetic Fields on Melatonin Secretion. Int J Occup Environ Health. 2(1):37-47. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=9933863

38. Liburdy, RP, Sloma TR, Sokolik R, Yaswen P. (1993) ELF magnetic fields, breast cancer and melatonin 60 Hz fields block melatonin’s oncostatic action on ER + breast cancer cell proliferation. Journal of Pineal research, 14(2):p.89 – 97. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8320637

39. Liburdy R.P. et al (1993) ELF magnetic fields, breast cancer and melatonin: 60 Hz fields block melatonin’s oncostatic action on ER+ breast cancer cell proliferation. Journal of Pineal research, 14(2):p.89 – 97. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8320637

40. Liburdy R.P., Afzay S.M.J. (1996) Inhibition of Melatonin’s Action of MCF-7 Cell Proliferation by Magnetic Fields Associated with Video Display Terminals: A Preliminary Study. BEMS Meeting, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada. Abstract A 1-3.

41. Loomis DP. (1992). Cancer of breast among men in electrical occupations (letter). Lancet. 339:1482-1483. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1351155

42. Loomis DP, Savitz DA, Ananth CV. (1994). Breast cancer mortality among female electrical workers in the United States. J Natl Cancer Inst. 86(12):921-5 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8196082

43. Luben R.A., Saraiya S. and Morgan A.P. (1996) Replication of 12mG EMF Effects on Melatonin Responses on MCF-7 Breast Cancer Cells in vitro , Annual Review of Research on Biological Effects of Electric and Magnetic Fields from the Generation, Delivery & Use of Electricity, San Antonio,Texas; Nov. 19 – 21, 1996. Abstract A- I.

44. Nicholas JS, Lackland DT, Butler GC, Mohr LC, Jr, et al (1998). Cosmic radiation and magnetic field exposure to airline flight crews. AM J Ind Med. 34(6):574-580 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9816415

45. Maisch D (1997). Melatonin, Tamoxifen, 50-60 Hertz Electromagnetic Fields and Breast Cancer: An Australian Senate discussion Paper, 27 October 1997 (published in Hansard) http://www.emfacts.com/papers/

46. Matonaski GM, Breysse PN, Elliott EA (1991). Electromagnetic field exposure and male breast cancer. Lancet. 337:737. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1672204

47. McElroy JA, Egan KM, Titus-Ernstoff L, Anderson HA, Trentham-Dietz A et al (2007). Occupational exposure to electromagnetic field and breast cancer risk in a large, population-based, case-control study in the United States. J Occup Environ Med. 49(3):266-74. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17351512

48. Milham S (2004). A cluster of male breast cancer in office workers. Am J Ind Med. 46:86-87. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=15202128 http://www.scribd.com/doc/12343293/Breast-Cancer-in-Men

49. O’Leary ES, Schoenfield ER, Henderson K, et al (2003). Wire coding in the EMF and Breast Cancer on Long Island Study: relationship to magnetic fields. J Expo Anal Environ Epidemiol 13(4):283-93. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12923555

50. Petralia SA, Chow WH, McLaughlin J, Jin F, Gao YT, Dosemeci M. (1998). Occupational risk factors for breast cancer among women in Shanghai. Am J Ind Med. 34(5):477-83. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9787852

51. Pollan M, Gustavsson P, Floderus B. (2001). Breast cancer, occupation, and exposure to electromagnetic fields among Swedish men. Am J Ind Med. 39(3):276-85

52. Pollan M, Gustavsson P. (1999) High-risk occupations for breast cancer in the Swedish female working population. Am J Public Health 89:875-81. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1508661/?tool=pubmed

53. Preston-Martin S. (1996). Breast cancer and magnetic field. (Editorial). Epidemiology 7:457-8. [No abstract] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=8862973

54. Rafinsson V, Sulem P, Tulinius II, Hrafnkelsson J (2003). Breast cancer risk in airline cabin attendants: a nested case-control study in Iceland. Occupational and Environmental Medicine 60:807-809. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1740419/?tool=pubmed

55. Reynolds P, Cone J, Layefsky M, Goldberg DE, Hurley S (2002). Cancer incidence in California flight attendants. Cancer Causes and Control 13:317-324 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12074501

56. Schernhammer ES, Hankinson SE (2005). Uriinary melatonin levels and breast cancer risk. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 97:1084-1087. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16030307 (Cross reference to the bibliography on the effects of EMF on Melatonin – in progress)

57. Schernhammer ES, Hankinson SE (2009). Urinary Melatonin Levels and Postmenopausal Breast Cancer Risk in the Nurses’ Health Study Cohort. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 18(1):74-9. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3036562/

58. Stevens R.G. (1987) Electric power use and breast cancer: a hypothesis Amer. J Epidemiol. 125: p.556 – 561. http://aje.oxfordjournals.org/content/125/4/556.full.pdf+html?ijkey=ebbda3ae0d98df903f680bc2a3523e67cc948cab&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

59. Stevens RG, Davis S, Thomas DB, Anderson LE, Wilson BW. (1992). Electric power, pineal function and the risk of breast cancer. FASEB J. 6(3):853-60. Review. http://www.fasebj.org/content/6/3/853.abstract?ijkey=820929b0e921ea1499eaaa8ee268ec5b40289d4d&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

60. Stevens RG, Davis S. (1996). The melatonin hypothesis: electric power and breast cancer. Environ Health Perspect. 104 Suppl 1:135-40. Review. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1469562/?tool=pubmed

61. Stevens RG. (1993). Biologically based epidemiological studies of electric power and cancer. Environ Health Perspect. 101 Suppl 4:93-100. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1519711/?tool=pubmed

62. Stevens RG. (1993). Breast cancer and electric power. Biomed Pharmacother. 47(10):435-8. Review. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8061242

63. Stevens RG. (1995). Re: “Risk of premenoposal breast cancer and use of electric blankets.” (Letter). Am J Epidemiol 142:446. [No abstract] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7625411

64. Stevens RG. (2009). Electric light causes canceer? Surely you’re joking, Mr. Sevens. Mutat Res. 682(1):1-6. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19401186

65. Thériault G. (1992). Electromagnetic fields and cancer risks. Rev Epidemiol Sante Publique. 40 Suppl 1:S55-62 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1626106

66. Thun-Battersby S, M Mevissen, W Loscher (1999). Exposure of Sprague-Dawley Rats to a 50-Hertz, 100- Tesla Magnetic Field for 27Weeks Facilitates Mammary Tumorigenesis in the 7, 12-Dimethylbenz[a] – anthracene Model of Breast Cancer. Cancer Research 59:3627-3633 http://www.scribd.com/doc/11119452/Severe-EMF-Exposure-to-Rats-With-Dire-Cancer-Results

67. Tynes T, Andersen A, Langmark F (1992). Incidence of cancer in Norwegian workers potentially exposed to electromagnetic fields. Am J Epidemiol, 136:81-88. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1415133

68. Tynes T, Andersen A. (1990). Electromagnetic fields and male breast cancer. Lancet. 336(8730):1596. [No abstract] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1979420

69. Tynes T, Hannevik M, Andersen A, et al. (1996). Incidence of breast cancer in Norwegian female radio and telegraph operators. Cancer Causes Control 7:197-204.

70. Tynes T. (1993). Electromagnetic fields and male breast cancer. Biomed Pharmacother 47:425-7 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8061240

71. Wertheimer N, Leeper E.(1987). Magnetic field exposure related to cancer subtypes. Ann NY Acad Sci 502:43-53 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7152787

72. Wertheimer N, Leeper E.(1987). Magnetic field exposure related to cancer subtypes. Ann NY Acad Sci 502:43-53. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3310802

73. Wertheimer N, Leeper E. (1995). Re: “Risk of premenopausal breast cancer and use of electric blankets” and “use of electric blankets and risk of postmenopausal breast cancer.” (Letter). Am J Epidemiol 142:1344-5 [No abstract] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7503056

74. Williams CD, Markov MS, Hardman WE, Cameron IL (2001). Therapeutic electromagnetic field effects on angiogenesis and tumor growth. Anticancer Res. 21(6A):3887-91. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11911264

75. Wolf, R., and Wolf, D. (2004). Increased incidence of cancer near a cell-phone transmitter station. Inter. J. Cancer Prev. 1(2): 123-128 http://www.duisburg.de/vv/31/medien/netanya-e.pdf