135 peer-reviewed scientific studies & reports showing significant effects of EMF exposures on male fertility (1972-2012).

  1. Afromeev VI, Tkachenko VN, (1999). [Change in the percent of lactate dehydrogenase isoenzyme level in testes of animals exposed to superhigh frequency radiation] Biofizika 44(5):931-932 [Article in Russian] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10624539

2. Agarwal A, Deepinder, F. Sharma RK, Ranga G. & J. Li. (2008). Effect of cell phone usage on semen analysis in men attending infertility clinic: an observational study, Fertil Steril. 89 (1):124-128. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17482179

3. Agarwal A, Desai NR, Ruffoli R, Carpi A. (2008). Lifestyle and testicular dysfunction: A brief review. Biomed Pharmacother. 62(8):550-553. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18771892

4. Agarwal A, NR. Desai, K Makker, A Varghese, R Mouradi, E Sabanegh, and R Sharma (2009). Effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic waves (RF-EMW) from cellular phones on human ejaculated semen: an in vitro pilot study. Fertil Steril. 92(4):1318-25. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18804757

5. Agarwal A, Singh A and Hamada A (2011):Cell phones and male infertility: review of recent innovations in technology and consequences. International Brazilian Journal of Andrology Vol. 37 (4): 432-454. http://www.brazjurol.com.br/july_august_2011/Agarwal_432_454.htm

6. Aghdam Shahryar H, A.R. Lotfi, M. Bahojb and A.R. Karami (2008). Effects of Electromagnetic Fields of Cellular Phone on Cortisol and Testosterone Hormones Rate in Syrian Hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus). International Journal of Zoological Research, 4: 230-233. http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ijzr.2008.230.233

7. Ahangarpour A, Fathi-Moghaddam H, Birgani MJ, Shahbazian H, Badavi M. (2009). Hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis responses of the male rats to short and long time alternative magnetic fields (50 Hz) exposure. J Res Med Sci.14(4):231-8 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21772889

8. Aitken RJ, Bennetts LE, Sawyer D, Wiklendt AM, King BV. (2005). Impact of radio frequency electromagnetic radiation on DNA integrity in the male germline. Int. J. Androl 28: 171–179. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15910543

9. Akdag Z, Celik MS, Ketani A, Nergiz Y, Deniz M, Dasdag S (1999). Effect of chronic low-intensity microwave radiation on sperm count, sperm morphology, and testicular and epididymal tissues of rats. Electro Magnetobiol 18 (2): 133 – 145 http://www.emf-portal.de/viewer.php?sform=&fb=yes&aid=9425&l=e

10. Andrienko LG, Dumanskiĭ IuD, Rudichenko VF, Meleshko GI. (1977). [Effect of industrial-frequency electromagnetic fields on the spermatogenic function].Vrach Delo. 9:116-8. [Article in Russian]. No abstract available. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/919464

11. Asashima M, Shimada K, Pfeiffer CJ. (1991)Magnetic shielding induces early developmental abnormalities in the newt, Cynops pyrrhogaster.Bioelectromagnetics, 12(4): 215-224

12. Avendaño C, Mata A, Sanchez Sarmiento CA, Doncel GF. (2012). Use of laptop computers connected to internet through Wi-Fi decreases human sperm motility and increases sperm DNA fragmentation. Fertility and Sterility. 97(1):39-45.e2 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22112647

13. Avendaño, C; A. Mata; A.M. Juarez Villanueva; V.S. Martínez; C.A. Sanchez Sarmiento (2010). Laptop expositions affect motility and induce DNA fragmentation in human spermatozoa in vitro by a nonthermal effect: a preliminary report. Fertility and Sterility. 94 (4), Supplement, pg. S73-S73 http://www.safeschool.ca/uploads/Laptop_Expositions.pdf

14. Baste V, Riise T and BE Moen (2008). Radiofrequency electromagnetic fields; male infertility and sex ratio of offspring Eur J Epidemiol. 23(5):369–377 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18415687

15. Bereznitskaya AN, Rysina TZ. (1973). Effects of Microwaves. In Biological Effects of Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields, Z.V. Gordon, ed., Arlington, Va., U.S. Joint Publications Research Service No. 6332l, pp.230-236. ). http://www.magdahavas.com/wordpress/wp-content/uploads/2010/10/Russian_Biological_Effects_of_Radiofrequency_Electromagnetic_Fields.pdf

16. Bereznitskaya, A.N. and I.M. Kazbekov (1974). Studies on the Reproduction and Testicular Microstructure of Mice Exposed to Microwaves. In Biological Effects of Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields, Z.V. Gordon, ed., Arlington, Va., U.S. Joint Publications Research Service No. 6332l, pp. 221-229 (1974). http://www.magdahavas.com/wordpress/wp-content/uploads/2010/10/Russian_Biological_Effects_of_Radiofrequency_Electromagnetic_Fields.pdf

17. Bernabò N, Tettamanti E, Russo V, Martelli A, Turriani M, Mattoli M, Barboni B. (2010). Extremely low frequency electromagnetic field exposure affects fertilization outcome in swine animal model. Theriogenology. 73(9):1293-305. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20176397

18. Bernabo N., Tettamanti E., Pistilli M.G., Nardinocchi D., Berardinelli P., Mattioli M., Barboni B. (2007). Effects of 50 Hz extremely low frequency magnetic field on the morphology and function of boar spermatozoa capacitated in vitro. Theriogenology, 67 (4), pp. 801-815 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17196643

19. Brugh VM and Lipshultz LI (2004). Male factor infertility: evaluation and management. Med. Clin. North Am. 88(2): 367–85. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15049583

20. Buiatti E, Barchielli A, Geddes M, Nastasi L, Kriebel D, Franchini M, Scarselli G. (1984). Risk factors in male infertility: a case-control study. Arch Environ Health. 39(4):266-70. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6497442

21. Cairnie AB, Harding RK (1981). Cytological studies in mouse testis irradiated with 2.45-GHz continuous-wave microwaves. Radiat Res 87(1):100-8. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7255665

22. Celik S, Aridogan IA, Izol V, Erdogan S, Polat S, Doran S (2011). An evaluation of the effects of long-term cell phone use on the testes via light and electron microscope analysis. Urology: 79(2): 346-50. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0090429511025933

23. Chen HY, Wang SM, Peng RY, Gao YB, Wang LF, Zhao L, Zuo HY, Dong J, Su ZT: (2011). [Long-term microwave radiation affects male reproduction in rats]. Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue; 17(3):214-8 [Article in Chinese] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21485541

24. Chia SE, Tay SK. (2001). Occupational risk for male infertility: a case-control study of 218 infertile and 227 fertile men. J Occup Environ Med 43: 946–51. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11725334?dopt=Abstract&holding=npg

25. Dasdag S, Ketani MA, Akdag Z. Ersay AR. Sari, I. Demirtas OC, Celik MS. (1999). Whole-body microwave exposure emitted by cellular phones and testicular function of rats. Urol Res. 27(3):219-23. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10422825

26. Davoudi M, Brossner C, Kuber W. (2002). Der Einfluß elektromagnetischer Wellen auf die Spermienmotilität [The influence of electromagnetic waves on sperm motility]. Journal fur Urologie und Urogynakologie. 19:18-22 http://www.emf-portal.de/viewer.php?aid=9854&l=g

27. De Iuliis GN, Newey RJ, King BV, Aitken RJ. (2009). Mobile phone radiation induces reactive oxygen species production and DNA damage in human spermatozoa in vitro, PLoS One.4(7):e6446 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19649291

28. De Vita R, Cavallo D, Raganella L, Eleuteri P, Grollino MG, Calugi A. (1995). Effects of 50 Hz magnetic fields on mouse spermatogenesis monitored by flow cytometric analysis. Bioelectromagnetics. 16(5):330-4. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8554635

29. Deepinder F, Makker K, Agarwal A. (2007). Cell phones and male infertility: dissecting the relationship. Reprod Biomed Online.15(3):266-70. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17854521

30. Deepinder F, Makkler K, Agarwal A. (2007). Cell phones and male infertility: dissecting the relationship. Reprod Biomed Online. 3:266-70. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17854521

31. Derias EM, Stefanis P, Drakeley A, Gazvani R, Lewis Jones DI. (2006). Growing concern over the safety of using mobile phones and male fertility. Arch Androl. 52(1):9–14. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16338863

32. Desai NR, Kesari KK, Agarwal A. (2009). Pathophysiology of cell phone radiation: oxidative stress and carcinogenesis with focus on male reproductive system, Reprod Biol Endocrinol. 7:114 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19849853

33. Dimitrova M, Dobrev B, Kiriakov K, Kirkov V, Panova Z (1982). [Effect of wide-band modulated electromagnetic fields on the workers of high-frequency telephone exchanges]. Problemi na khigienata ;7:21-9 http://ukpmc.ac.uk/abstract/MED/7178066

34. Emura R, Ashida N, Higashi T, Takeuchi T. (2001) Orientation of bull sperms in static magnetic fields. Bioelectromagnetics, 22(1): 60-65 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11122494

35. Erogul, E. Oztas, I. Yildirim, T. Kir, E. Aydur, G. Komesli, H.C. Irkilata, M.K. Irmak, A.F. Peker (2006). Effects of electromagnetic radiation from a cellular phone on human sperm motility: an in vitro study, Arch. Med.Res. 37 (2006) 840–843. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16971222

36. Esmekaya MA, Ozer C, Seyhan N. (2011). 900 MHz pulse-modulated radiofrequency radiation induces oxidative stress on heart, lung, testis and liver tissues. Gen Physiol Biophys., 30 (1):(84-9). http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21460416

37. Falzone N, Huyser C, Becker P, Leszczynski D, Franken DR. (2011). The effect of pulsed 900MHz GSM mobile phone radiation on the acrosome reaction, head morphometry and zona binding of human spermatozoa, Int J Androl. 34(1):206. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20236367

38. Falzone N, Huyser C, Fourie FlR, Toivo T, Leszczynski D & Franken DR. (2008) In vitro effect of 900 MHz GSM radiation on mitochondrial membrane potential and motility of human spermatozoa. Bioelectromagnetics 29: 268–276. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/bem.20390/abstract

39. Farkhad, S.A., S. Zare, H. Hayatgeibi and A. Qadiri (2007). Effects of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields on testes in Guinea pig. Pak. J. Biol. Sci., 10: 4519-4522. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19093523

40. Fejes, Z. Závaczki, J. Szöllősi, S. Koloszár, J. Daru, L. Kovács, A. Pál. (2005). Is there a relationship between cell phone use and semen quality? Arch. Androl. 51: 385–393. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16087567

41. Forgács Z, Kubinyi G, Sinay G, Bakos J, Hudák A, Surján A, Révész C, Thuróczy G. (2005). Effects of 1800 MHz GSM-like Exposure on the Gonadal Function and Haematological Parameters of Male Mice Magy Onkol. 49(2):149-51 [Article in Hungarian] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16249811

42. Forgacs Z, Z Somosy, G Kubinyi, J Bakos (2005) Effect of whole-body 1800 MHz GSM-like microwave exposure on testicular steroidogenesis and histology in mice. Reproductive Toxicology 22(1): 111-17. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0890623805002716

43. Fracki S, Bablok L, Mezynski J. (1994). Fertility disturbances in males working as professional computer operators. Ginekol Pol 65: 41–4. [Article in Polish] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8070704?dopt=Abstract&holding=npg

44. Gao XF, Wang SM, Peng RY (2007). [Status quo of the researches on the biological effect of electromagnetic radiation on the testis and epididymal sperm]. Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue; 13(9):826-9 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17929563

45. Gorodetskaia SF, Kerova NI. (1966). [Changes in some functional and biochemical criteria in animal testicles under effect of three centimeter radio waves]. Fiziol Zh. 12(2):246-53. [Article in Ukrainian] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/5986793

46. Grigor’ev VV, Ogurtsov RP, Zubzhitskiĭ IuN: (1981). [Immunomorphologic changes in the testes upon exposure to a microwave electromagnetic field]. Arkh Anat Gistol Embriol; 80(2):69-75 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7020654

47. Gutschi T, Mohamad Al-Ali B, Shamloul R, Pummer K, Trummer H. (2011). Impact of cell phone use on men’s semen parameters. Andrologia. 2011 Mar 28. E-pub ahead of print. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21486411

48. Haidt SJ, McTighe AH (1973). The effect of chronic, low-level microwave radiation on the testicles of mice. In: Maley, SW., ed. IEEE-G-MIT International Microwave Symposium, University of Colorado, June 4-6, 1973, pp. 324-325. DOI: 10.1109/GMTT.1973.1123206. http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/freeabs_all.jsp?arnumber=1123206&isnumber=24832

49. Hamada AJ, Singh A and Agarwal A (2011): Cell Phones and their Impact on Male Fertility: Fact or Fiction. The Open Reproductive Science Journal, Special Issue on Advances in Andrology and Male Reproductive Health 3: 125-137. http://www.benthamscience.com/open/torsj/articles/V003/SI0001TORSJ/125TORSJ.pdf

50. Hardell L, Carlberg M, Ohlson CG, Westberg H, Eriksson M, Hansson Mild K. (2007). Use of cellular and cordless telephones and risk of testicular cancer. Int J Androl.30(2):11522. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17209885

51. Hirsh A (2003). Male subfertility. BMJ 327 (7416): 669–72. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14500443

52. Hjollund N.H.I., Bonde J.P.E. & Skotte J. (1997) Semen analysis of personnel operating military radar equipment Reprod. Toxicol. 11(6): 897 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9407601

53. Hong R, Liu Y, Yu YM, Hu K, Weng EQ. (2003). [Effects of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields on male reproduction in mice]. Zhonghua Lao Dong Wei Sheng Zhi Ye Bing Za Zhi. 21(5):342-5. [Article in Chinese] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14761395

54. Hong R, Zhang Y, Liu Y, Weng EQ. (2005). [Effects of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields on DNA of testicular cells and sperm chromatin structure in mice]. Zhonghua Lao Dong Wei Sheng Zhi Ye Bing Za Zhi. 23(6):414-7.[Article in Chinese]. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16405771

55. Iorio R, Delle Monache S, Bennato F, Di Bartolomeo C, Scrimaglio R, Cinque B, Colonna RC. (2011). Involvement of mitochondrial activity in mediating ELF-EMF stimulatory effect on human sperm motility. Bioelectromagnetics.32(1):15-27. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20690107

56. Iorio R, Scrimaglio R, Rantucci E, Delle Monache S, et al (2007). A preliminary study of oscillating electromagnetic field effects on human spermatozoon motility. Bioelectromagnetics. 28(1):72-5 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17019728

57. Irgens A, Kruger K, Ulstein M. (1999). The effect of male occupational exposure in infertile couples in Norway. J Occup Environ Med 41: 1116–20. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10609232?dopt=Abstract&holding=npg

58. Ivanova LA, Kartashev AG. (1991). [The effect of alternating electric field of industrial frequency on testicles of white mice]. Fiziol Zh. 37(6):71-8. [Article in Russian] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1820954

59. James WH. (1998). Sperm counts and offspring sex ratio as monitors of reproductive hazard to people exposed to microwave radiation. Reprod Toxicol. 12(4):495-6. [No abstract] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=9717701

60. Jørgensen N, Vierula M, Jacobsen R, Pukkala E, Perheentupa A, Virtanen HE, Skakkebaek NE, Toppari J. (2011). Recent adverse trends in semen quality and testis cancer incidence among Finnish men. Int J Androl. 34(4 Pt 2):e37-48. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21366607

61. Kang N, Shang XJ, Huang YF. (2010). [Impact of cell phone radiation on male reproduction]. [Article in Chinese] Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue. 16(11):1027-30. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21218649

62. Kesari KK and Behari J. (2010). Microwave Exposure Affecting Reproductive System in Male Rats. Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology 162 (2): 416-428. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19768389

63. Kesari KK, Kumar S, & Behari J. (2010). Mobile phone usage and male infertility in Wistar rats. Indian J Exp Biol. 48(10):987-92. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21299041

64. Kesari, K.K, Kumar, S & Behari, J. (2011). Effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic wave exposure from cellular phones on the reproductive pattern in male Wistar rats. Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology 164(4):546-59 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21240569

65. Kesari, K.K.& Behari, J.(2008). Effect of mobile phone radiation exposure on reproductive system of male rats, IEEE: 564 – 567. http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpls/abs_all.jsp?arnumber=4763230

66. Khaki AA, Tubbs RS, Shoja MM, Rad JS, Khaki A, Farahani RM, Zarrintan S, Nag TC (2006). The effects of an electromagnetic field on the boundary tissue of the seminiferous tubules of the rat: A light and transmission electron microscope study. Folia Morphol (Warsz); 2006 Aug;65(3):188-94 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16988914

67. Khaki AA, Zarrintan S, Khaki A, Zahedi A. (2008). The effects of electromagnetic field on the microstructure of seminal vesicles in rat: a light and transmission electron microscope study. Pak J Biol Sci. 11(5):692-701. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18819564

68. Khillare B and J Behari (1998) Effect of amplitude-modulated radiofrequency radiation on reproduction patterns in rats. Electro and Magnetobiology 17(1), 43-55. http://informahealthcare.com/doi/abs/10.3109/15368379809012886

69. Kilgallon SJ, Simmons LW. (2005). Image content influences men’s semen quality. Biol Lett.;1:253-5. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1617155/

70. Kilicalp D, S. Dede, Y. Deger and L. Aslan, (2009). Effects of Green Tea on Mineral Levels of Liver and Testis of Guinea Pigs Electromagnetic Field Emitted by Mobil Phones. Asian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances, 4: 86-92. http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajava.2009.86.92

71. Knave B, Gamberale F, Bergström S, Birke E, Iregren A, Kolmodin-Hedman B, Wennberg A (1979). Long-term exposure to electric fields. A cross-sectional epidemiologic investigation of occupationally exposed workers in high-voltage substations. Scand J Work Environ Health 5(2):115-125 www.sjweh.fi

72. Kowalczuk CI, Saunders RD, Stapleton HR. (1983). Sperm count and sperm abnormality in mice after exposure to 2.45 GHz microwave radiation Mutat Res. 122(2):155-61 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6656806

73. Kumar S, Kesari KK, Behari J. (2011). Influence of microwave exposure on fertility of male rats. Fertil Steril. 95(4): 1500-2. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20723534

74. Kumar S, Kesari KK, Behari J. (2011). The therapeutic effect of a pulsed electromagnetic field on the reproductive patterns of male Wistar rats exposed to a 2.45-GHz microwave field. Clinics (Sao Paulo). 66(7):1237-45. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3148471/pdf/cln-66-07-1237.pdf

75. La Vignera S, Condorelli RA, Vicari E, et al. (2011). Effects of the Exposure to Mobile Phones on Male Reproduction: A Review of the Literature. J Androl. 2011 Jul 28. [Epub ahead of print] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21799142

76. Lähdetie J (1995) Occupation and exposure-related studies on human sperm. J Occup Environ Med. 37: 922-30. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8520954

77. Lancranjan I, Miicfnescu M, Rafaili E, Klepsch I, Popescu HI. (1975). Gonadic function in workmen with long-term exposure to microwaves. Health Phys. 29:381-3. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1193858

78. Lee, J.S., S.S. Ahn, K.C. Jung, Y.W. Kirn and S.K. Lee (2004). Effects of 60 Hz electromagnetic field exposure on testicular germ cell apoptosis in mice. Asian J. Androl., 6: 29-34. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15064831

79. Lerchl A., Bornkessel C.(2010). Letter to the editor on ‘effects of exposure to a mobile phone on testicular function and structure in adult rabbit’ by Salama et al. Int J Androl. 33: 95 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2816354/?tool=pubmed

80. Li DK., Yan B., Gao E., Ferber J. R., Yuan W., et al . (2010). Exposure To Magnetic Fields And The Risk Of Poor Sperm Quality. Reprod Toxicol 29(1):86-92. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19910156

81. Linsenmeyer T, Wilmot C, Anderson RU. (1989). The effects of the electroejaculation procedure on sperm motility. Paraplegia. 27(6):465-9. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2608300

82. Loft S, Kold-Jensen T, Hjollund NH, Giwercman A, Gyllemborg J, Ernst E, Olsen J, Scheike T, Poulsen HE, Bonde JP. (2003). Oxidative DNA damage in human sperm influences time to pregnancy. Hum Reprod. 18(6):1265-72. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12773457

83. Lokhmatova S A (1993). [An ultrastructural analysis of the testes in mice subjected to long-term exposure to a 17-kHz electrical field]. Radiobiologiia.33(3):342-6. [article in Russian]. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8332711

84. Lokhmatova S A (1994). The effect of low-intensity prolonged impulse electromagnetic irradiation in the UHF range on the testes and the appendages of the testis in rats. Radiat Biol Radioecol 34: 279-285 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8193721

85. Lokhmatova SA, Pastukhova IuR. (1993). [Morphologic and histoenzymologic analysis of effect of electrical fields at 17 khz on testis and testis appendages in mice]. Aviakosm Ekolog Med. 27(3):50-4. [Article in Russian] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8044153

86. Lukac N Massanyi P, Roychoudhury S, Capcarova M, Tvrda E, Knazicka Z, Kolesarova A, Danko J. (2011). In vitro effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic waves on bovine spermatozoa motility, J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng. 46(12):1417-23 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21942395

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88. Mailankot M, Kunnath AP, Jayalekshmi H, Koduru B, Valsalan R. (2009). Radio frequency electromagnetic radiation (RFEMR) from GSM (0.9/1.8GHz) mobile phones induces oxidative stress and reduces sperm motility in rats. Clinics (Sao Paulo). 64(6):561-5. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19578660

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92. Manikowska-Czerska E, Czerski P, Leach WM. (1985). Effects of 2.45 GHz microwaves on meiotic chromosomes of male CBA/CAY mice. J Hered. 76(1):71-3. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3980975

93. McGivern RF, Sokol RZ, Adey WR. (1990). Prenatal exposure to a low-frequency electromagnetic field demasculinizes adult scent marking behavior and increases accessory sex organ weights in rats. Teratology. 41(1):1-8. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2106174

94. McRee DI, Thaxton JP, Parkhurst CR. (1983). Reproduction in male Japanese quail exposed to microwave radiation during embryogeny. Radiat Res. 96(1):51-8. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6622655

95. Meo SA, Al-Drees AM, Husain S, Khan MM, Imran MB. (2010). Effects of mobile phone radiation on serum testosterone in Wistar albino rats. Saudi Med J. (8):869-73. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20714683

96. Meo SA, Arif M, Rashied S, Khan MM, Vohra MS, Usmani AM, Imran MB, Al-Drees AM. (2011). Hypospermatogenesis and spermatozoa maturation arrest in rats induced by mobile phone radiation. J Coll Physicians Surg Pak. 21(5):262-5. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21575531

97. Merhi ZO. (2012). Challenging cell phone impact on reproduction: A Review. J Assist Reprod Genet. 2012 Feb 16. [Epub ahead of print] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22350528

98. Milan PB, DM Nejad, AA Ghanbari, JS Rad, HT Nasrabadi, MH Roudkenar, AM Roushandeh and M Goldust, (2011). Effects of Polygonum aviculare Herbal Extract on Sperm Parameters after EMF Exposure in Mouse. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences, 14: 720-724. http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=pjbs.2011.720.724

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