Many peer-reviewed studies now show a direct link between EMF exposures and prenatal effects.

Here are just 166 of them. This includes human and animal studies, but excludes over 130 references on male fertility, which can be found here:

1. Aldad TS, G Gan, XB Gao, HS Taylor. (2012). Fetal Radiofrequency Radiation Exposure From 800-1900 Mhz-Rated Cellular Telephones Affects Neurodevelopment and Behavior in Mice. Scientific Reports. 2: 312 7 p

2. Algers B, K. Hennichs (1983). Biological effects of electromagnetic fields. A review. Vet. Res. Commun. 6: 265–279.

3. Anselmo, CWSF., PB Pereira, MTJA. Catanho and MC Medeiros, (2007). Effects of the electromagnetic field, 60 Hz, 3 μT, on the hormonal and metabolic regulation of undernourished pregnant rats. Braz. J. Biol., 69: 397-404.

4. Bas O, Odaci E, Mollaoglu H, Ucok K, Kaplan S. (2009). Chronic prenatal exposure to the 900 megahertz electromagnetic field induces pyramidal cell loss in the hippocampus of newborn rats. Toxicol Ind Health . 25(6). 377 – 384.

5. Bastide M, B.J. Youbicier-Simoa, J.C. Lebecq, J. Giaimis. (2001). Toxicologic study of electromagnetic radiation emitted by television and video display screens and cellular telephones on chickens and mice, Indoor Built Environ. 10: 291–298.

6. Batellier F, Couty I, Picard D, Brillard JP. (2008). Effects of exposing chicken eggs to a cell phone in “call” position over the entire incubation period. Theriogenology. 69 (6):737-45.

7. Bayat PD, Ghanbari A, Saeid B, Khazaei M, Ghorbani R, Ayubian M. (2011). Effect of exposure to extremely low electro-magnetic field during prenatal period on mice spleen. Indian J Exp Biol. 49(8):634-8.

8. Belanger, K., Leaderer, B., Hellenbrand, K., Holford, T.R., McSharry, J-E., Power, M-E, and Bracken, M.B. (1998). Spontaneous abortion and exposure to electric blankets and heated water beds. Epidemiology, 9: 36-42

9. Bellieni CV, Pinto I, Bogi A, Zoppetti N, Andreuccetti D, Buonocore G (2012). Exposure to electromagnetic fields from laptop use of “laptop” computers. Archives of Environmental & Occupational Health 67(1):31-6.

10. Beraldi R, Sciamanna I, Mangiacasale R, Lorenzini R, Spadafora C. (2003). Mouse early embryos obtained by natural breeding or in vitro fertilization display a differential sensitivity to extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields. Mutat Res. 538(1-2):163-70.

11. Bereznitskaya AN, Rysina TZ. (1973). Effects of Microwaves. In Biological Effects of Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields, Z.V. Gordon, ed., Arlington, Va., U.S. Joint Publications Research Service No. 6332l, pp.230-236. ).

12. Bereznitskaya AN. (1968). [Certain indices of fertility in female mice irradiated with 10-centimeter waves]. Gig Tr Prof Zabol. 12(9):33-7. [Article in Russian] No Abstract.

13. Bereznitskaya, A. N. and Rysina, T. Z. (1974). Embryotropic Effects of Microwaves. In: Biological Effects of Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields, Gordon, Z. V.,editor. Arlington, Va., U.S. Joint Pub.Research Service, 1974, pp. 230-36..

14. Bereznitskaya, A. N., and Kazhokov, I.M (1974). Studies on the Reproduction and Testicular Microstructure of Mice Exposed to Microwaves. In: Biological Effects of Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields, Gordon, Z. V., editor. Arlington, Va., U.S. Joint Pub. Research Service, 1974, pp. 221-29.

15. Berman E, Carter HB and House D. 1984: “Growth and development of mice offspring after irradiation in utero with 2,450-MHz microwaves”. Teratology. 30(3):393-402.

16. Berman E, Carter HB, House D. (1982). Reduced weight in mice offspring after in utero exposure to 2450-MHz (CW) microwaves. Bioelectromagnetics3(2): 285-291.

17. Berman E, Carter HB. (1984). Decreased body weight in fetal rats after irradiation with 2450-MHz (CW) microwaves. Health Phys 46: 537–542.

18. Berman E, Kinn JB, and Carter HB (1978). Observations of mouse fetuses after irradiation with 2.45 GHz microwaves, Health Physics, 35, pp. 791-801 and

19. Berman, E.L., Chacon, D., House, B., Koch, A., et al. (1990). Development of chicken embryos in a pulsed magnetic field. Bioelectromagnetics 11:169–187

20. Blaasaas K, T Tynes, A Irgens, R Lie (2002). Risk of birth defects by parental occupational exposure to 50 Hz electromagnetic fields: a population based study Occup Environ Med. 59(2): 92–97. doi: 10.1136/oem.59.2.92

21. Blackman CF, House DE, Benane SG, Joines WT, Spiegel RJ. (1988). Effect of ambient levels of power-line-frequency electric fields on a developing vertebrate. Bioelectromagnetics ;9(2):129–140

22. Blackman CF. (2006). Can EMF exposure during development leave an imprint later in life? Electromagn Biol Med. 25(4):217-25.

23. Blackman, C. (2009).Cell phone radiation: Evidence from ELF and RF studies supporting more inclusive risk identification and assessment. Pathophysiology.16. 205-216.

24. Borhani N, Rajaei F, Salehi Z, Javadi A. (2011). Analysis of DNA fragmentation in mouse embryos exposed to an extremely low-frequency electromagnetic field. Electromagn Biol Med. 30(4):246-52.

25. Brent RL,WE Gordon, WR Bennett, DA. Beckman (1993). Reproductive and teratologic effects of electromagnetic fields. Reprod. Toxicol. 7: 535–580.

26. Brown-Woodman PD, Hadley JA, Waterhouse J, Webster WS. (1988). Teratogenic effects of exposure to radiofrequency radiation (27.12 MHz) from a shortwave diathermy unit. Ind Health. 26(1):1-10.

27. Brown-Woodman, PDC, Hadley, JA, Richardson L., Bright D. and Porter D. (1989). Evaluation of reproductive function of female rats exposed to radiofrequency field (27.12 MHz) near a shortwave diathermy device. Health Physics 56(4): 521-525.

28. Budak GG, Muluk NB, Budak B, Oztürk GG, Apan A, Seyhan N. (2009). Effects of intrauterine and extrauterine exposure to GSM-like radiofrequency on distortion product otoacoustic emissions in infant male rabbits. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 73: 391-99.

29. California EMF Risk Evaluation (2002): Final Report. Chapter 13: Miscarriage.

30. Cameron IL, Hardman WE, Winters WD, Zimmerman S, Zimmerman AM. (1993). Environmental magnetic fields: influences on early embryogenesis. J Cell Biochem. 51(4):417-25

31. Cao, YN; Y Zhang, Y Liu (2006). “Effects of exposure to extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields on reproduction of female mice and development of offsprings”. Zhonghua Lao Dong Wei Sheng Zhi Ye Bing Za Zhi 24 (8): 468-70

32. Celik O, Hascalik S. (2004). Effect of electromagnetic field emitted by cellular phones on foetal heart rate patterns. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 112(1): 55-6.

33. Chación L, M. A. Trillo, A. Ubeda, J. Leal (1990). A 30-HZ Pulsed Magnetic Field Can Stop Early Embryonic Development. Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine 9(1): 61–66.

34. Chavdoula ED, Panagopoulos DJ, Margaritis LH. (2010). Comparison of biological effects between continuous and intermittent exposure to GSM-900-MHz mobile phone radiation: Detection of apoptotic cell-death features. Mutat Res. 700(1-2):51-61.

35. Chiang H and G. D. Yao (1987). Effects of Pulsed Microwave Radiation Pre-and Post-natally on the Developing Brain in Mice. Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine. 6(2): 197-204

36. Chiang H, Wu RY, Shao BJ, Fu YD, Yao GD, Lu DJ. (1995). Pulsed magnetic field from video display terminals enhances teratogenic effects of cytosine arabinoside in mice. Bioelectromagnetics. 16(1):70-4.

37. Cobb BL, Jauchem JR, Mason PA, Dooley MP, Miller SA, Ziriax JM, Murphy MR,(2000). Neural and behavioral teratological evaluation of rats exposed to ultra-wideband electromagnetic fields. Bioelectromagnetics 21(7):524-537.

38. Cocozza, G., A. Blasio, and B. Nunziata (1960): [Remarks on short-wave embryopathies]. Pediatria (Napoli). 68 (1): 7-23 [Article in Italian. No abstract].

39. Daşdag S, MZ Akdag, O Ayyıldız, ÖC Demirtaş, M Yayla, C Sert. (2000). Do Cellular Phones Alter Blood Parameters And Birth Weight Of Rats? Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine 19(1): 107-113.

40. De-Kun Li, Roxana Odouli, S Wi, T Janevic, I Golditch, TD Bracken, R Senior, R Rankin, R Iriye (January 2002). “A population-based prospective cohort study of personal exposure to magnetic fields during pregnancy and the risk of miscarriage”. Epidemiology 13 (1): 9-20

41. Delgado JM, Leal J, Monteagudo JL, Gracia MG (1982). Embryological changes induced by weak, extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields. Journal of Anatomy 134 (3): 533–51.

42. Divan HA, Kheifets L, Obel C, Olsen J. (2010). Cell phone use and behavioural problems in young children. J Epidemiol Community Health. Dec 7.; doi:10.1136/jech.2010.115402

43. Divan, HA; Kheifets, L.; Obel, C & J.Olsen (2008). Prenatal and Postnatal Exposure to Cell Phone Use and Behavioral Problems in Children. Epidemiology.9(4). pp 523-29.

44. Dundar B., Cesur G., Comlekci S., Songur A., Caliskan S., et al .(2009). The Effect of Prenatal and Post-Natal Long-Term Exposure To 50 Hz Electric Field On Growth, Pubertal Development And Igf-1 Levels in Female Wistar Rats. Toxicol Ind. Health. Vol. 25, Pg. 479 – 487.

45. Eckert EE.(1976). [Plötzlicher und underwarteter Tod im Kleinkindesalter und elektromagnetische] Felder. Med Klin. 71(37):1500–05. [Article in German].

46. Environmental Health Criteria 16 (1981): Radiofrequency and Microwaves, WHO, Geneva, Switzerland, ISBN 92- 4- 154076- 1.

47. Falugi , M Grattarola, G Prestipino (1987). Effects of low-intensity pulsed electromagnetic fields on the early development of sea urchins. Biophys J. 51(6): 999–1003.

48. Farrell, J.M., Barker, M., Krause, D. and Litovitz, T.A., (1997). Effects of low-frequency electromagnetic fields on the activity of ornithine decarboxylase in developing chicken embryos. Bioelectrochemistry and Bioenergetics 43: 91-96.

49. Figà-Talamanca I., P. Nardone, C. Giliberti. (2010). Exposure to electromagnetic fields and human reproduction: the epidemiologic evidence. In, ” Non Thermal Effects and Mechanisms of interaction between electromagnetic fields and living matter “, European J. Oncology-Library vol.5, pp 387-402. L. Giuliani and M. Soffritti (eds).

50. Findlay, R.P.; Lee, AK & P. J. Dimbylow (2009): FDTD calculations of SAR for child voxel models in different postures between 10 MHz and 3 GHz. Radiat Prot Dosimetry 135(4): 226-231.

51. Fleming AH, Joyner KH. (1992). Estimates of absorption of radiofrequency radiation by the embryo and fetus during pregnancy. Health Phys. 63(2):149-59.

52. Fragopouloua AF, SL Koussoulakos, and LH Margaritisa. (2010). Cranial and postcranial skeletal variations induced in mouse embryos by mobile phone radiation. Pathophysiology. 17(3):169-77;

53. Frey AH. (1978) Blood-brain, blood-vitrous humor, and placental barrier modification due to microwave exposure [abstract]. Biophysical J 21(3):110a 54. Frölen H, Svedenstål BM, Paulsson LE. (1993). Effects of pulsed magnetic fields on the developing mouse embryo. Bioelectromagnetics. 14(3):197-204.

55. Galat VV, Mezhevikina LM, Zubin MN, Lepikhov KA, Khramov RN, Chaĭlakhian LM. (1999). [Effect of millimeter waves on the early development of the mouse and sea urchin embryo]. Biofizika; 44(1):137-40. [Article in Russian]

56. Galvin MJ, Tilson HA, Mitchell CL, Peterson J, and McRee DI.(1986). Influence of Pre- and Postnatal Exposure of Rats to 2.45-GHz Microwave Radiation on Neurobehavioral Function. Bioelectromagnetics 7: 57-71.

57. Giarola, A. J. and Krueger, W. F.: Continuous exposure of chicks and rats to electromagnetic fields. IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. MTT 22:432-37, 1974.

58. Gildersleeve RP, Bryan TE, Galvin MJ, McRee DI, Thaxton JP. (1988). Serum enzymes in hemorrhaged Japanese quail after microwave irradiation during embryogeny. Comp Biochem Physiol A Comp Physiol. 89(4):531-4.

59. Gildersleeve RP, MJGalvin, DI McRee, JP Thaxton (1986). Response of Japanese quail to hemorrhagic stress after exposure to microwave radiation during embryogeny. Comp Biochem Physiol A Comp Physiol. 85(4): 679-687.

60. Gildersleeve RP, Satterlee DG, McRee DI, Bryan TE, Parkhurst CR. (1988). Plasma corticosterone in hemorrhaged Japanese quail after microwave irradiation in ovo. Comp Biochem Physiol A Comp Physiol. 89(3):415-24.

61. Goldhaber MK, Polen MR, Hiatt RA. (1988). The risk of miscarriage and birth defects among women who use visual display terminals during pregnancy. Am J Ind Med 13:695-706.

62. Goldhaber, M. K., M. R. Polen and R. A. Hiatt. (1988). Risk of miscarriage and birth defects among women who use visual display terminals during pregnancy. American Journal of Industrial Medicine 13:695-706.

63. Goldsworthy, A. (2011). How Smart Meters May Cause Autism and Cancer. MSCA News 6(8). Pp 2-7.

64. Gonet, B., Kosik-Bogacka, D.I., Kuźna-Grygiel, W. (2009). Effects of extremely low-frequency magnetic fields on the oviposition of Drosophila melanogaster over three generations. Bioelectromagnetics. 30(8):687-9.

65. Grigor’ev IuG. (2003). [Biological effects of mobile phone electromagnetic field on chick embryo (risk assessment using the mortality rate)]. Radiats Biol Radioecol. 43(5):541-3. [Article in Russian]

66. Gul A., Celebi H., Ugras S. (2009). The effects of microwave emitted by cellular phones on ovarian follicles in rats. Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics. 280 (5): 729-33.

67. Guler G, Tomruk A, Ozgur E, Seyhan N. (2010): The effect of radiofrequency radiation on DNA and lipid damage in non-pregnant and pregnant rabbits and their newborns. Gen Physiol Biophys. 29(1):59-66.

68. Gunn, S. A., Gould, T. C., and Anderson,W. A. D.: The effect of microwave radiation on morphology and function of rat testis. Lab. Invest. 10:301-14, 1961.

69. Haidt, S. J. and McTighe, A. H.: The Effect of Chronic, Low-Level Microwave Radiation on the Testicles of Mice. In: 1973 IEEE-G-MTT International Microwave Symposium, Maley, S. W.,editor. 1973, pp. 324-25.

70. Hassa H, Yalcin O, Basmak N, et al. (1999). Teratogenic effects of electromagnetic fields on the skeletal systems of rat fetuses. Tr J of Medical Sciences. 29: 555-9.

71. Hemminki K, Niemi ML, Koskinen K, Vainio H. (1980). Spontaneous abortions among women employed in the metal industry in Finland. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 47:53-60

72. Huuskonen H, Juutilainen J, Julkunen A, et al. (1998). Effects of low-frequency magnetic fields on fetal development in CBA/Ca Mice, Bioelectromagnetics 19: 477-85.

73. Ingole IV, S.K. Ghosh. (2006). Cell phone radiation and developing tissues in chicken embryo—a light microscopic study of kidneys, J. Anat. Soc. India 55: 19–23.

74. Jensh RP, Vogel WH, Brent RL. (1983). An evaluation of the teratogenic potential of protracted exposure of pregnant rats to 2450-MHz microwave radiation. II. Postnatal psychophysiologic analysis. J Toxicol Environ Health. 11(1):37-59.

75. Jensh, R.P. (1997). Behavioral teratologic studies using microwave radiation: Is there an increased risk from exposure to cellular phones and microwave ovens Reprod Toxicol. 11(4):601-11.

76. Jing J, Zhang Yuhua, Yang Xiao-qian, Jiang Rongping, Guo Dong-mei, Cui Xi (2012). The influence of microwave radiation from cellular phone on fetal rat brain. Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine. Posted online on 23 Jan 2012.

77. Jové M, Torrente M, Gilabert R, Espinar A, Cobos P, Piera V. (1999). Effects of static electromagnetic fields on chick embryo pineal gland development. Cells Tissues Organs. 165(2):74-80

78. Juutilainen J, Harri M, Saali K, Lahtinen T. (1986). Effects of 100-Hz magnetic fields with various waveforms on the development of chick embryos. Radiat Environ Biophys. 25(1):65-74.

79. Juutilainen, J., Matilainen, P., Saarikoski, S., Laara, E. and Suonio, S., 1993: “Early pregnancy loss and exposure to 50 Hz magnetic fields”. Bioelectromagnetics, 14(3): 229-236.

80. Kane, R.C. (2004). A Possible Association Between Fetal/neonatal Exposure to Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Radiation and the Increased Incidence of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Medical Hypotheses 62, 195-197.

81. Kaplan, J., P. Polson, C. Rebert, K. Lunan, and M. Gage. (1982). Biological and behavioral effects of prenatal and postnatal exposure to 2450-Mhz electromagnetic radiation in the squirrel monkey. Radio Science., 17(5S): 135-144

82. Karolinska Institute Press Release (2011). Press Release. Stockholm, Sweden: “Scientists Urge Halt of Wireless Rollout and Call for New Safety Standards: Warning Issued on Risks to Children and Pregnant Women.”

83. Kismali G, Ozgur E, Guler G, Akcay A, Sel T, Seyhan N. (2012). The influence of 1800 MHz GSM-like signals on blood chemistry and oxidative stress in non-pregnant and pregnant rabbits. Int J Radiat Biol. 2012 Jan 27. [Epub ahead of print]

84. Krueger WF, A. J. Giarola, J. W. Bradley, and A. Shrekenhamer (1975). Effects of Electromagnetic Fields on Fecundity in the Chicken, Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci., 247: 391.

85. Krueger, W. F., Giarola, A. J., Bradley, J. W., and Daruvalla, S. R.: Influence of low-level electric and magnetic fields on the growth of young chicks. Biomed.Sci. Instrum. 9:183-86, 1972.

86. Krylov, V.V. (2010). Effects of electromagnetic fields on parthenogenic eggs of Daphnia magna Straus. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 73(1): 62-66.

87. Lahijani MS, S Farivar, and M Khodaeian. (2011). Effects of 50 Hz electromagnetic fields on the histology, apoptosis, and expression of c-Fos and β-Catenin on the livers of preincubated white leghorn chicken embryos. Electromagn Biol Med. 30(3): 158-169.

88. Lahijani MS, SE Nojooshi, SF Siadat (2007). Light and Electron Microscope Studies of Effects of 50 Hz Electromagnetic Fields on Preincubated Chick Embryo. Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine 26(2): 83-98.

89. Leach WM (1980). Genetic, growth, and reproductive effects of microwave radiation. Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine. 56(2): 249-57.

90. Lee GM, Neutra RR, Hristova L, Yost M, and Hiatt RA. (2000). The use of electric bed heaters and the risk of clinically recognized spontaneous abortion. Epidemiology 11(4): 406-415. 91. Lee, G. M., Neutra, R. R., Hristova, L., Yost, M. and Hiatt, R. A. (2002). A nested case-control study of residential and personal magnetic field measures and miscarriages. Epidemiology, 13: 21-31.

92. Lemaire, V., Koehl, M., Le Moal, M., Abrous, D.N., 2000. Prenatal stress produces learning deficits associated with an inhibition of neurogenesis in the hippocampus. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci.

93. Li DK, H Chen & R Odouli. (2011). Maternal Exposure to Magnetic Fields During Pregnancy in Relation to the Risk of Asthma in Offspring. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. Published online August 1, 2011. doi:10.1001/archpediatrics.2011.135.

94. Li DK, Odouli R, Wi S, Janevic T, Golditch I, Bracken TD, Senior R, Rankin R, Iriye R. (2002). A population-based prospective cohort study of personal exposure to magnetic fields during pregnancy and the risk of miscarriage. Epidemiology.13(1):9-20.

95. Li P., McLaughlin J., Infante-Rivard C. (2009). Maternal Occupational Exposure to Extremely Low Frequency Magnetic Fields And The Risk Of Brain Cancer In The Offspring. Cancer Causes Control. 20:945 – 955.

96. Liu X. Y., Bian X. M., Han J. X., Cao Z. J., Fan G. S., Zhang C., Zhang W. L., Zhang S.Z. and Sun X. G., (2007). Risk factors for the living environment of early spontaneous abortion in pregnant women, Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao, 29(5): 661-664.

97. Lyaginskajaa AM, Grigorieva YG, Osipova VA,. Grigorieva OA, and AV Shafirkin. (2010). Autoimmune Processes after Long-Term Low-Level Exposure to Electromagnetic Fields Experimental Results) Part 5. Study of the Influence of Blood Serum from Rats Exposed to Low-Level Electromagnetic Fields on Pregnancy and Fetal and Offspring Development. Biophysics, 55(6): 1059–66.

98. Magras I.N. & T. D. Xenos (1997). RF Radiation–Induced Changes in the Prenatal Development of Mice. Bioelectromagnetics 18:455–461.

99. Marcickiewicz J, Chazan B, Niemiec T, Sokolska G, Troszyński M, Luczak M, Szmigielski S. (1986). Microwave radiation enhances teratogenic effect of cytosine arabinoside in mice. Biol Neonate 50(2):75-82.

100. Marcickiewicz J, Chazan B, Niemiec T, Sokolska G, Troszyński M, Luczak M, Szmigielski S. 1986. Microwave radiation enhances teratogenic effect of cytosine arabinoside in mice. Biol Neonate. 50(2):75-82.

101. Marcickiewicz J, Chazan B, Troszyński M, Szmigielski S. (1984). [Are microwaves a co-teratogen? Experimental model concept and its verification]. Probl Med Wieku Rozwoj. 13:168-75. [Article in Polish].

102. Mariea, T.J. & G.L. Carlo. (2007). Wireless Radiation in the Etiology and Treatment of Autism: Clinical Observations and Mechanisms. J. Aust. Coll. Nutr. & Env. Med. 26 (2): 3-7:

103. Martin, A., 1988. Magnetic fields and time dependent effects on development. Bioelectromagnetics, 9: 393-396.

104. Martin, A.H., 1992. Development of chicken embryos following exposure to 60-Hz magnetic fields with differing waveforms. Bioelectromagnetics, 13: 223-230.

105. McDonald AD, McDonald JC, Armstrong B, Cherry N, Nolin AD, Robert D. (1988). Work with visual display units in pregnancy. Br J Ind Med. 45(8):509-15.

106. McGivern RF, Sokol RZ, Adey WR (1990). Prenatal exposure to a low-frequency electromagnetic field demasculinizes adult scent marking behavior and increases accessory sex organ weights in rats. Teratology; 41(1):1-8

107. Michaelson, S. M., Howland, J. W., and Deichmann, W. B.: Response of the dog to 24,000 and 1285 MHz microwave exposure. Ind. Med. 40:18-23, 1971.

108. Milham S. (2009). Historical evidence that electrification caused the 20th century epidemic of ‘‘diseases of civilization”. Med Hypotheses. 74(2):337-45.

109. Muraca, Jr., G. L., Ferri, E. S., and Buchta, F. L.: A Study of the Effects of Microwave Irradiation of the Rat Testes. In: Biological Effects of Electromagnetic Waves, Johnson, C. C. and Shore, M.L., editors. Rockville, Md., Food and Drug Administration (HEW Publication (FDA) 77-8010), 1976, vol. 1, pp.484-94.

110. Nakamura H, Nagase H, Ogino K, Hatta K, Matsuzaki I. (2000). Uteroplacental circulatory disturbance mediated by prostaglandin F(2alpha) in rats exposed to microwaves. Reprod Toxicol 14(3):235-240.

111. Nakamura, H, Seto, T, Hatta, K, Matsuzaki, I, Nagase, H, Yoshida, M, Ogino, K. (1998). Natural killer cell activity reduced by microwave exposure during pregnancy is mediated by opioid systems. Environ Res 79(2):106-13.

112. Nakamura, H, Seto, T, Nagase, H, Yoshida, M, Dan, S, Ogino, K. (1997). Effects of exposure to microwaves on cellular immunity and placental steroids in pregnant rats. Occup Environ Med 54(9): 676-80.

113. Nawrot PS, McRee DI, Staples RE. (1981). Effects of 2.45 GHz CW microwave radiation on embryofetal development in mice. Teratology. 24(3): 303-14.

114. Nawrot, P.S , D. I. McRee, M. J. Galvin. (1985). Teratogenic, Biochemical, and Histological Studies with Mice Prenatally Exposed to 2.45-GHz Microwave Radiation. Radiation Research. 102(1): 35-45.

115. O’Connor ME (1999): Intrauterine effects in animals exposed to radiofrequency and microwave fields. Teratology 59:287-291.

116. Odaci E, Bas O, Kaplan S. (2008). Effects of prenatal exposure to a 900 MHz electromagnetic field on the dentate gyrus of rats: a stereological and histopathological study. Brain Res. 1238: 224-9.

117. Olsen, R.G., (1997). Insect teratogenesis in a standing-wave irradiation system. Radio Science 12: 199-207.

118. Ossenkopp KP. (1972). Maturation and open-field behavior in rats exposed prenatally to an ELF low-intensity rotating magnetic field. Psychol Rep. 30(2):371-4.

119. Ossenkopp, KP., Koltek, T., & Persinger, M.A. (1972). Prenatal exposure to an ELF-rotating magnetic field and increases in thyroid and testicle weights Developmental Psychobiology 5: 275-285

120. Ouellet-Hellstrom R. and Stewart W. F. (1993). Miscarriages among female physical therapists who report using radio- and microwave-frequency electromagnetic radiation, Am J Epidemiol 138(10): 775-786.

121. Panagopoulos and Margaritis LH, (2010a): The effect of Exposure Duration on the Biological Activity of Mobile Telephony Radiation, Mutation Research, 699(1/2), 17-22.

122. Panagopoulos D.J., Karabarbounis A., and Margaritis L.H., (2004). Effect of GSM 900-MHz Mobile Phone Radiation on the Reproductive Capacity of Drosophila melanogaster, Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine, 23(1), 29-43.

123. Panagopoulos DJ, A Karabarbounis, LH. Margaritis (2004). Effect of GSM 900-MHz Mobile Phone Radiation on the Reproductive Capacity of Drosophila melanogaster. Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine. 23( 1): 29–43.

124. Pay TL, E.C. Beyer and C.F. Reichelderjer (1972) Microwave Effects on Reproductive Capacity and Genetic Transmission in Drosophila Melanogaster. JMPEE 7(2): 75-82.

125. Persinger MA, Pear JJ. (1972). Prenatal exposure to an ELF-rotating magnetic field and subsequent increase in conditioned suppression. Dev Psychobiol. 5(3):269–274.

126. Persinger, M. (1969). Open-field Behaviour in Rats Exposed Prenatally to a Low Intensity-Low Frequency Rotating Magnetic Field. Developmental Psychobiology. 2/3: 168-171.

127. Persinger, M.A., & Ossenkopp, K.-P. (1973). Some behavioral effects of pre- and neo-natal exposure to an ELF rotating magnetic field. International Journal of Biometeorology 17: 217-220.

128. Peyman A, Gabriel C, Benedickter HR, Fröhlich J. (2011). Dielectric properties of human placenta, umbilical cord and amniotic fluid. Phys Med Biol.56(7):N93-8. Epub 2011 Mar 2.

129. Picazo ML, De Miguel MP, Leyton V, et al. (1995). Long-term effects of ELF magnetic fields on the mouse testis and serum testosterone levels. Electro Magnetobiol 14(2): 127-34.

130. Pourlis, A.F. (2009). Reproductive and developmental effects of EMF in vertebrate models. Pathophysiology 16:179-189.

131. Pyrpasopoulou A, Kotoula V, Cheva A, Hytiroglou P, Nikolakaki E, Magras IN, Xenos TD, Tsiboukis TD, Karkavelas G. (2004). Bone morphogenetic protein expression in newborn rat kidneys after prenatal exposure to radiofrequency radiation. Bioelectromagnetics. 25(3):216-27.

132. Rajendra P, HN Sujatha, D Devendranath, B Gunasekaran, RB Sashidhar, C Subramanyam, Channakeshava (2004). Biological effects of power frequency magnetic fields: Neurochemical and toxicological changes in developing chick embryos Biomagn Res Technol. 2: 1

133. Redmayne M, Smith E, Abramson MJ. (2011). Adolescent in-school cellphone habits: a census of rules, survey of their effectiveness, and fertility implications. Reprod Toxicol. 2011 Nov;32(3):354-9. Epub 2011 Sep 6.

134. Rezk A. Y., Abdulqawi K., Mustafa R. M., Abo El-Azm T. M. and Al-Inany H. (2008). Fetal and neonatal responses following maternal exposure to mobile phones, Saudi Med J 29(2): 218-223.

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